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Practical C++ Error Handling in Hybrid Environments

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Exception Handling in Hybrid Environments

Error handling is hard. Mixing multiple mechanisms is harder. The only thing that's even harder is explaining why your system doesn't handle errors properly. Different situations call for different solutions.

Sometimes avoiding exceptions is the right thing to do. Here are a few factors in favor of this approach:

  • You maintain an existing system that doesn't use exceptions.
  • The piece you work on is performance critical (pending profiling).
  • Team members are not familiar with exception handling and are not keen on learning.

If you have already made the decision to use exceptions, you can pick and choose your battles. Not every function must throw exceptions and you probably don't want to convert the error-handling style of a large existing code base. Use exception handling in new code and where it makes sense. For example, if there is a complex piece of existing code that's buggy and tends to mismanage resources when errors occur, it is probably a good candidate for conversion. There is a good chance that the design is not optimal to begin with so while you refactor it, you can also convert it to use exception handling. You would be surprised how small the code can get with automatic objects managing cleanup of resources in destructors.

Catch exceptions on the interoperability border. When you need to interface with another component, you must conform to its API of course (unless you define that API, then the other party has to conform). If this API involves returning error codes or setting errno or any other error-handling reporting mechanism, you must not leak unhandled exceptions. It doesn't mean that you can't use exceptions in this case. It just means that you should catch your own exceptions internally in each API method/function and map your exceptions to the appropriate API convention.

The reverse is also true. If your code is heavily exception oriented and you call into some nonexception API, you don't have to deal with yet another error mechanism. You can wrap all the calls through this API in an object that converts API error codes to exceptions.


StreamingException (Listing One) is an exception class that exposes a stream interface and allows one-line formatting of complex error messages. The design and implementation are interesting and use C++ constructs such as std::auto_ptr, the mutable modifier, and (begrudgingly) exception specifications.


#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <memory>
#include <stdexcept>

class StreamingException : public std::runtime_error
 StreamingException() :
       (new std::stringstream()))

 ~StreamingException() throw()

 template <typename T>
 StreamingException & operator << (const T & t)
   (*ss_) << t;
   return *this;

 virtual const char * what() const throw()
   s_ = ss_->str();
   return s_.c_str();

 mutable std::auto_ptr<std::stringstream> ss_;
 mutable std::string s_;

Listing One

StreamingException is derived from std::runtime_error. It's good form to derive your exception classes from std::standard_error because it communicates your intention (I hope you throw your exceptions at runtime) and it lets the application catch runtime errors from multiple sources (as long as all the other sources follow this guideline, too). In addition, std::runtime_error provides the what() method that returns a text message with the error description. By default, what() returns the message that was passed in the constructor. StreamingException overrides the virtual what() and returns instead the contents of its stream (it's not called "StreamingException" for nothing). The StreamingException constructor takes no arguments and passes an empty message to its base std::runtime_error constructor (remember that this message is not used anyway). The constructor then creates a stringstream instance on the heap and puts it in a mutable std::auto_ptr. If you studied your smart pointers well, you know that std::auto_ptr has the unusual property of ownership transfer. When you assign it to another auto_ptr, the assignee gets the ownership of the pointed object and the original object is left with nothing. This peculiar behavior is sometimes dangerous and often gets in the way (you can't put auto_ptr into a standard container because you will lose the ownership to the container). In this case it is exactly what the doctor ordered. You will soon see why and why it must be mutable.

The destructor is quite empty, but it can't be dropped. The compiler will indeed generate a default destructor for you, but the default destructor doesn't come with an empty throw() exception specification. This is required because std::runtime_error defines such a virtual destructor. Exception specifications are an annoying misfeature of C++ that specifies what exceptions a method may throw and are part of the method signature. Thankfully, they are optional so you don't see them a lot in the wild.

The templated operator<< is where the pedal hits the metal. This is a template method that accepts any streamable T. That translates to standard types plus any other type that implements a conforming operator<<. The implementation simply streams the T argument to its member stringstream s_. The return value is a reference to the StreamingException class itself. This allows chaining multiple calls to operator<<.

Finally, StreamingException overrides the virtual what() method to return the contents of its stringstream. Note the exception specification again.

Example 1 is straightforward. It tries to compare 5 to 3 and throws a StreamingException when the comparison fails. Note the dynamic message was constructed in one line and streamed into the exception while throwing it! (And yes, it works.)

int main (int argc, char * const argv[]) 
    if (5 != 3)
      throw StreamingException() << 5 << " is not equal to " << 3;
  catch (const StreamingException & e)
    cout << e.what() << endl;
  return 0;

Example 1: Using StreamException.

In the catch clause the exception is caught by a const reference. This is a good practice, too. Please refer to your favorite C++ book for the reasoning. The catch clause proceeds to print the exception's message via what() to the standard output.

It's time to reveal StreamingException's secrets. The thrown exception is a temporary object. The instance that is caught in the catch clause is actually a copy of the original exception. I had a couple of choices to keep the error message intact during this copy. Most of them involved implementing a copy constructor and some of them involved duplication of the error message. Instead, I opted to use auto_ptr, which takes care of two issues: It deletes the dynamically allocated stringstream on destruction and it transfers the ownership when StreamingException is copied. Okay, so why mutable? Well, the caught exception is a const reference because the catching code is not supposed to modify the internal state of the exception. However, auto_ptr with its ownership transfer semantics does require a change of state. The mutable modifier was invented exactly for this purpose—being able to modify the internal state of an object while preserving its conceptual constness.


C++ is a multiparadigm programming language supporting procedural, object-oriented, generic, and even metaprogramming. C++ also allows multiple error handling strategies to coexist in the same system. Getting it right is not a simple task. Still, it is possible to create complicated error messages in a safe and concise manner.

Gigi is a senior staff engineer with Numenta specializing in object-oriented programming in C/C++/C#/Python/Java with emphasis on large-scale distributed systems. He can be contacted at

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