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CUDA, Supercomputing for the Masses: Part 5


Shared Memory Cautions

  • Watch out for shared memory bank conflicts, which can slow performance.
  • All dynamically allocated shared variables in a kernel start at the same memory address. Using more than one dynamically allocated shared memory array requires manually generating the offset. For example, if you want dynamically allocated shared memory to contain two arrays, a and b, then you need to do something like:

__global__ void kernel(int aSize)
{
   extern __shared__ float sData[];
   float *a, *b;

   a = sData;
   b = &a[aSize];

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Register/Local Memory Cautions

  • Register memory can be transparently placed into local memory. This can potentially be a cause for poor performance. Check the ptx assembly code or look for lmem in the output from nvcc with the "-ptxas-options=-v".
  • Arrays indexed by constants known at compile time typically reside in registers but if they are indexed by variables they cannot reside in registers. This creates a conundrum for the developer because loop unrolling may be required to keep array elements in register memory as opposed to slow global memory. However, unrolling loops can greatly increase register usage, which may result in variables being kept in local memory -- obviating any benefit of loop unrolling. It is possible to use the nvcc option, -maxrregcount=value to tell the compiler to use more registers. (Note: the maximum register count that can be specified is 128.) This is a tradeoff between using more registers and creating fewer threads, which may hinder the opportunities to hide memory latency. With some architectures, use of this option may also prevent kernels from starting due to insufficient resources.

A Shared Memory Kernel

Both programs reverseArray_multiblock.cu and revereseArray_multiblock_fast.cu perform the same tasks. They create a 1D array of integers, h_a, containing the integer values [0 .. dimA-1]. The array is then moved via cudaMemcpy to the device and the host then launches the reverseArrayBlock kernel to reverse order the array contents in place. Again, cudaMemcpy is used to transfer data from the device to the host where a check is performed to verify that the device produced the correct result (for example, [dimA-1 .. 0]).

The difference is that reverseArray_multiblock_fast.cu uses shared memory to improve the performance of the kernel, while reverseArray_multiblock.cu operates entirely in global memory. Try timing the two programs and verify for yourself the difference in performance. Also, reverseArray_multiblock.cu accesses global memory in an inefficient manner. We will use the CUDA profiler to help diagnose and fix this performance issue in a future column, and show how improvements in the new 10 series architecture eliminate the need for these types of optimizations in many cases.

// includes, system
#include <stdio.h>
#include <assert.h>

// Simple utility function to check for CUDA runtime errors
void checkCUDAError(const char* msg);

// Part 2 of 2: implement the fast kernel using shared memory
__global__ void reverseArrayBlock(int *d_out, int *d_in)
{
    extern __shared__ int s_data[];

    int inOffset  = blockDim.x * blockIdx.x;
    int in  = inOffset + threadIdx.x;

    // Load one element per thread from device memory and store it 
    // *in reversed order* into temporary shared memory
    s_data[blockDim.x - 1 - threadIdx.x] = d_in[in];

    // Block until all threads in the block have written their data to shared mem
    __syncthreads();

    // write the data from shared memory in forward order, 
    // but to the reversed block offset as before

    int outOffset = blockDim.x * (gridDim.x - 1 - blockIdx.x);

    int out = outOffset + threadIdx.x;
    d_out[out] = s_data[threadIdx.x];
}

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Program main
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
int main( int argc, char** argv) 
{
    // pointer for host memory and size
    int *h_a;
    int dimA = 256 * 1024; // 256K elements (1MB total)

    // pointer for device memory
    int *d_b, *d_a;

    // define grid and block size
    int numThreadsPerBlock = 256;

    // Compute number of blocks needed based on array size and desired block size
    int numBlocks = dimA / numThreadsPerBlock;  

    // Part 1 of 2: Compute the number of bytes of shared memory needed
    // This is used in the kernel invocation below
    int sharedMemSize = numThreadsPerBlock * sizeof(int);

    // allocate host and device memory
    size_t memSize = numBlocks * numThreadsPerBlock * sizeof(int);
    h_a = (int *) malloc(memSize);
    cudaMalloc( (void **) &d_a, memSize );
    cudaMalloc( (void **) &d_b, memSize );

    // Initialize input array on host
    for (int i = 0; i < dimA; ++i)
    {
        h_a[i] = i;
    }

    // Copy host array to device array
    cudaMemcpy( d_a, h_a, memSize, cudaMemcpyHostToDevice );

    // launch kernel
    dim3 dimGrid(numBlocks);
    dim3 dimBlock(numThreadsPerBlock);
    reverseArrayBlock<<< dimGrid, dimBlock, sharedMemSize >>>( d_b, d_a );

    // block until the device has completed
    cudaThreadSynchronize();

    // check if kernel execution generated an error
    // Check for any CUDA errors
    checkCUDAError("kernel invocation");

    // device to host copy
    cudaMemcpy( h_a, d_b, memSize, cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost );

    // Check for any CUDA errors
    checkCUDAError("memcpy");

    // verify the data returned to the host is correct
    for (int i = 0; i < dimA; i++)
    {
        assert(h_a[i] == dimA - 1 - i );
    }

    // free device memory
    cudaFree(d_a);
    cudaFree(d_b);

    // free host memory
    free(h_a);

    // If the program makes it this far, then the results are correct and
    // there are no run-time errors.  Good work!
    printf("Correct!\n");

    return 0;
}

void checkCUDAError(const char *msg)
{
    cudaError_t err = cudaGetLastError();
    if( cudaSuccess != err) 
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "Cuda error: %s: %s.\n", msg, cudaGetErrorString( err) );
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }                         
}

Deciding on the amount of shared memory at runtime requires some setup in both host and device code. In this example , the amount of shared memory (in bytes) for each block in a kernel is specified in the execution configuration on the host as an optional third parameter. (Setup on the host side is only required if the amount of shared memory is specified at kernel launch. If it's fixed at compile time no setup is required on the host side.) By default, the execution configuration assumes no shared memory is used. For example, in the host code of arrayReversal_multiblock_fast.cu, the following code snippet allocates shared memory for an array of integers containing a number of elements equal to the number of threads in a block:

// Part 1 of 2: Compute the number of bytes of share memory needed
// This is used in the kernel invocation below
int sharedMemSize = numThreadsPerBlock * sizeof(int);

Looking at the reverseArrayBlock kernel, the shared memory is declared with the following:


extern __shared__ int s_data[];

Note that the size is not indicated in the kernel -- rather it is obtained from the host through the execution configuration.

Until the next column on profiling, I recommend looking at the reverseArray_multiblock.cu. Do you think there is a performance problem in accessing global memory? If you think there is a problem, try to fix it.

For More Information

Click here for more information on CUDA, here for the the CUDA Occupancy Calculator, and here for more information on NVIDIA.


Rob Farber is a senior scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He has worked in massively parallel computing at several national laboratories and as co-founder of several startups. He can be reached at rmfarber@gmail.com.


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