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Prefer Structured Lifetimes: Local, Nested, Bounded, Deterministic

What's Wrong, and How To Make It Right

The code correctly executes the subrange sorts in parallel. Unfortunately, what it doesn't do is encapsulate and localize the concurrency, because this version of the code doesn't guarantee that the subrange sorts will be complete before it returns to the caller. Why not? Because the code failed to join with the spawned work. As illustrated in Figure 1, subtasks can still be running while the caller may already be executing beyond its call to Quicksort. The execution is unstructured; that is, unlike normal structured function calls, the execution of subtasks does not nest properly inside the execution of the parent task that launched them, but is unbounded and nondeterministic.

Figure 1

The failure to join actually causes two related but distinct problems:

  • Completion of side effects: The caller expects that when the function returns the data in the range is sorted.
  • Synchronization: The caller expects Quicksort won't still be accessing the data in the range, which would race with the caller's subsequent uses of that same data.

Remember, to the caller this appears to be a synchronous method. The caller expects all side effects to be completed, and has no obvious way to wait for them to complete if they're not.

Fortunately, the fix is easy: Just make sure that each invocation of Quicksort not only spawns the subrange sorting in parallel, but also waits for the spawned work to complete. To illustrate the idea, the following corrected example will use a future type along the lines of futures available in Java and in C++0x, but any kind of task handle that can be waited for will do:

// Example 3: Parallelized quicksort, take 2 (fixed)
void Quicksort( Iter first, Iter last ) {
  // If the range is small, synchronous sort is usually faster.
  if( distance( first, last ) < limit ) {
    OtherSort( first, last );
  // 1. Pick a pivot position somewhere in the middle.
  // Move all elements smaller than the pivot value to
  // the pivot's left, and all larger elements to its right.
  Iter pivot = Partition( first, last );
  // 2. Recurse to sort the subranges. Run the first
  // asynchronously, while this thread continues with
  // the second.
  <font color="red">future fut =</font>  [=]{ Quicksort( first, pivot ); }  );
  Quicksort( pivot, last );
  <font color="red">// 3. Join to ensure we don't return until the work is complete.

As illustrated in Figure 2, just making parent tasks wait for their subtasks makes the execution nicely structured, bounded, and deterministic. We've implemented a barrier where everyone including the caller waits before proceeding, and thus returned the desired amount of synchronicity:

Figure 2

  • Completion of side effects: We guarantee that when the function returns, it has done its full job and the range is sorted.
  • Synchronization: After the function returns, some part of its work won't still be accessing the data, and so won't invisibly race with the caller's subsequent uses of the data.


Table 2 illustrates the differences between structured and unstructured lifetimes in the form of a little artsy photo sequence. In the following descriptions, notice how consistently we use synonyms for our four keywords: local, nested, bounded, and deterministic.

Table 2

  • Structured: As illustrated on the left side of Table 2, structured lifetimes are like Russian dolls. They nest cleanly, so that each doll fits entirely inside the next larger one. As the program is assembled and executed, each subgroup can be manipulated as a unit. When fully assembled, every individual part is nicely encapsulated and in a well-known place, easy to understand and reason about.

  • Unstructured (initial intent): When we first buy into unstructured lifetimes, we think we're buying into the middle picture of raw pasta. We start out with a manageable handful of stiff little independent and parallel lifetimes that don't twist or cross very much. Life is good, at least in the initial PowerPoint design…

  • Unstructured (in practice): Unfortunately, as the final picture shows, we end up with something quite different. Software under maintenance behaves a lot like pasta: Once it's cooked and combined with other ingredients, the unstructured threads don't stay easy to grasp and easy to separate, but rather get intertwined and easier to break. What we actually wind up with ends up being quite slippery -- in the worst case, "spaghetti code."

Just because some work is done concurrently under the covers, behind a synchronous API call, doesn't mean there isn't any sequential synchronization with the caller. When a synchronous function returns to the caller, even if it did internal work in parallel it must guarantee that as much work as is needed is fully complete, including all side effects and uses of data.

Where possible, prefer structured lifetimes: ones that are local, nested, bounded, and deterministic. This is true no matter what kind of lifetime we're considering, including object lifetimes, thread or task lifetimes, lock lifetimes, or any other kind. Prefer scoped locking, using RAII lock-owning objects (C++, C# via using) or scoped language features (C# lock, Java synchronized). Prefer scoped tasks, wherever possible, particularly for divide-and-conquer and similar strategies where structuredness is natural. Unstructured lifetimes can be perfectly appropriate, of course, but we should be sure we need them because they always incur at least some cost in each of code complexity, code clarity and maintainability, and run-time performance. Where possible, avoid slippery spaghetti code, which becomes all the worse a nightmare to build and maintain when the lifetime issues are amplified by concurrency.


Thanks to Scott Meyers for his valuable feedback on drafts of this article.


[1] E. Dijkstra. "Go To Statement Considered Harmful" (Communications of the ACM, 11(3), March 1968). Available online at search engines everywhere.

[2] Here is one example of why deterministic destruction/dispose matters for performance: In 2003, the website was using .NET code and suffering performance problems. The team's analysis found that too many mid-life objects were leaking into Generation 2 and this caused frequent full garbage collection cycles, which are expensive. In fact, the system was spending 70% of its execution time in garbage collection. The CLR performance team's suggestion? Change the code to dispose as many objects as possible before making server-to-server calls. The result? The system spent approximately 1% of its time in garbage collection after the fix.

[3] C# mistakenly called the finalizer the "destructor," which it is not, and this naming error has caused no end of confusion.

[4] E. Lee. "The Problem with Threads" (University of California at Berkeley, Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Technical Report, January 2006).

[5] The new parallel task runtimes (e.g., Microsoft's Parallel Patterns Library and Task Parallel Library, Intel's Threading Building Blocks) are heavily optimized for structured task lifetimes, and their interfaces encourage structured tasks with implicit joins by default. The resulting performance and determinism benefits are some of the biggest improvements they offer over older abstractions like thread pools and explicit threads. For example, knowing tasks are structured means that all their associated state can be allocated directly on the stack without any heap allocation. That isn't just a nice performance checkmark, but it's an important piece of a key optimization achievement, namely driving down the cost of unrealized concurrency -- the overhead of expressing work as a task (instead of a synchronous function call), in the case when the task is not actually executed on a different thread -- to almost nothing (meaning on the same order as the overhead of an ordinary function call).

[6] The key to avoiding deadlock is to acquire locks in a deterministic and globally recognized order. Although releasing locks in reverse order is not as important for avoiding deadlock, it is usually natural. The key thing for keeping lock lifetimes structured is to release any locks the function took at least by the end of the function, which makes code self-contained and easier to reason about. Even when using a technique like hand-over-hand locking where lock release is not in reverse order of lock acquisition, locking should still be scoped so that all locks a function took are released by the time the function returns. See also H. Sutter. "Use Lock Hierarchies to Avoid Deadlock" (Dr. Dobb's Journal, 33(1), January 2008). Available online at

[7] H. Sutter. "Effective Concurrency: Avoid Exposing Concurrency -- Hide It Inside Synchronous Methods" (Dr. Dobb's Digest, October 2009). Available online at .

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