Channels ▼
RSS

Web Development

Python NetWorkSpaces and Parallel Programs

Source Code Accompanies This Article. Download It Now.


Robert and Nicholas are members of the Department of Computer Science and W.M. Keck Foundation Biotechnology Resource Laboratory at Yale University. Nicholas and Stephen are researchers at Scientific Computing Associates.


Parallel programming has the reputation of being an exotic field, pursued by experts using extremely large and expensive machines. Unfortunately, due in part to its history, parallel programming languages and tools still mostly focus on "big iron" and older languages such as C and Fortran. Performance improvement via parallelism should be of interest to anyone whose codes run too slowly. This requires a shift in focus.

Today, many new computers are multicore and most users have access to multiple computers. Many developers work with newer dynamic languages like Python and R. To meet the needs of these users, we've developed a Python-based coordination system called "NetWorkSpaces" (NWS) that is easy to learn, accessible via almost all development environments (including R, Java, octave, Python, Perl, and Ruby), and deployable on ad hoc collections of spare CPUs. But while its simplicity makes it a good choice for pedagogical examples, it's not a toy system. We've used NWS to run parallel programs on hundreds of processors, producing many CPU years of useful computation.

NetWorkSpaces

NetWorkSpaces (www.lindaspaces.com/products/NWS_overview.html) was developed at Scientific Computing Associates and is available at SourceForge (nws-py.sourceforge.net/).

You must install both the server (on one machine) and a client (on all machines involved in the computation). The server is implemented using Python and Twisted, which are required. Even though NWS is implemented in Python, we have NetWorkSpace client APIs for a variety of languages. While we describe the Python client here, the ideas transfer to other language clients.

NWS is based on the concept of a set of bindings, which in programming languages are sometimes known as "environments," "namespaces," "workspaces," and the like. Generally in programming languages, a binding maps a name to a value. Because this is a concept familiar to programmers, it is a good foundation for building a coordination system.

A given language has rules about allowable names, allowable values for a given name, and the context in which the binding is valid (the binding's scope). The language also provides operations for establishing a binding and for retrieving the value of a bound name. Often these operations are implied by the lexical structure of code, as is the intended binding set. So, for example, in x = y the y implies a look-up of the value bound to y, while the x is the target of the assignment. Scoping rules determine which x and y are meant.

NWS provides a particular encapsulation of binding semantics. Using this encapsulation, we explicitly specify the look-up (fetch), the association of the name x with the retrieved value (store), and the intended binding set (indicated by the ws object). Thus, a simple assignment looks like this in NWS:


ws.store('x', ws.fetch('y'))

So far, we've succeeded in making a fairly routine construct more verbose. The key point is that the NWS encapsulation is amenable to a network-based implementation, which lets different processes exchange data and synchronize via NWS bindings.

In many languages, including Python, we could have used syntax similar to that of normal bindings:

ws.x = ws.y

However, the semantics of these NWS variables differ in important ways from that of normal variables. In our opinion, it's a mistake to create a false illusion of similarity when, in fact, there are important differences.

NWS is designed to be a coordination facility that is language neutral. The advantages this neutrality offers include:

  • NWS coordination patterns and idioms can be recycled from one language environment to the next.
  • NWS can be used to coordinate heterogeneous ensembles of code written in different languages.

To facilitate interlanguage coordination, NWS variable names are ASCII strings and don't need to conform to the variable naming rules of any given language. The values can be any native type in the client language for which that language has a workable serialization. Most values in most of the languages mentioned can be automatically serialized (the serialization is done behind the scenes by NWS, and is not of direct concern to programmers).

For example, Python NWS can automatically handle composite data structures:


>>> from nws.client import NetWorkSpace
>>> ws=NetWorkSpace('test')
>>> l=['a','b','c']
>>> t=(1,2,3)
>>> d={'list':l, 'tuple':t}
>>> ws.store('dict example', d)
>>> ws.fetch('dict example')
{'list': ['a', 'b', 'c'], 'tuple': (1, 2, 3)}

Finally, ASCII strings used as values are treated in a special way (they are not subject to the client language serialization protocol) that makes it possible for them to be exchanged across client languages. In Example 1, for instance, you can use NWS to move data from Python to R encoded as an ASCII string.

Python
>>> from nws.client import NetWorkSpace
>>> ws=NetWorkSpace('tickets')
>>> ws.store('ticket', 'ticket string')

R
> library(nws)
> ws<-netWorkSpace('tickets')
> nwsFetch(ws, 'ticket')
[1] "ticket string"

Example 1: Using NWS to move data from Python to R encoded as an ASCII string.


Related Reading


More Insights






Currently we allow the following HTML tags in comments:

Single tags

These tags can be used alone and don't need an ending tag.

<br> Defines a single line break

<hr> Defines a horizontal line

Matching tags

These require an ending tag - e.g. <i>italic text</i>

<a> Defines an anchor

<b> Defines bold text

<big> Defines big text

<blockquote> Defines a long quotation

<caption> Defines a table caption

<cite> Defines a citation

<code> Defines computer code text

<em> Defines emphasized text

<fieldset> Defines a border around elements in a form

<h1> This is heading 1

<h2> This is heading 2

<h3> This is heading 3

<h4> This is heading 4

<h5> This is heading 5

<h6> This is heading 6

<i> Defines italic text

<p> Defines a paragraph

<pre> Defines preformatted text

<q> Defines a short quotation

<samp> Defines sample computer code text

<small> Defines small text

<span> Defines a section in a document

<s> Defines strikethrough text

<strike> Defines strikethrough text

<strong> Defines strong text

<sub> Defines subscripted text

<sup> Defines superscripted text

<u> Defines underlined text

Dr. Dobb's encourages readers to engage in spirited, healthy debate, including taking us to task. However, Dr. Dobb's moderates all comments posted to our site, and reserves the right to modify or remove any content that it determines to be derogatory, offensive, inflammatory, vulgar, irrelevant/off-topic, racist or obvious marketing or spam. Dr. Dobb's further reserves the right to disable the profile of any commenter participating in said activities.

 
Disqus Tips To upload an avatar photo, first complete your Disqus profile. | View the list of supported HTML tags you can use to style comments. | Please read our commenting policy.
 
Dr. Dobb's TV